The majority of VICALP’s target communities are the Adivasis, who constitute 60% of the participating population and the rest 40% are the Dalits, OBCs and rural poor. These communities live as traditional neighbours and natural allies for centuries and this historical ‘living together’ has manifested itself in their inter-dependence in economic life, affinity in socio-cultural behaviour, values and belief system, customs and traditions. Moreover they have seen each others as supporters, friends in need, collaborators in individual and community actions, and advisors to each other in times of struggle, strife and crisis. In the class-caste ridden Indian society the Adivasi-Dalits are located at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder and have been subjected to centuries of economic marginalization, social exclusion and inhuman oppression as untouchables and unwanted. Till date these ethnic communities live a life of abject poverty with comparatively higher rates of maternal and infant mortality, and deprivations.